Shamisen instrument

The classical instrument Shamisen is a Japanese 3-string musical instrument derived from the Chinese Sanxian instrument of the thirteenth century Yuan dynasty, it came to Japan through the Okinawa islands, and thus the Sanshin was born which would later evolve into the Shamisen In the rest of Japan. It is constructed of wood, goat leather, 3 strings and we have adapted a microphone. The strings are played with plectrum of wood (at the moment exist of several materials) which gives a very particular and recognizable sound in the traditional Japanese music.

At the outset this ancient three-stringed musical instrument was only within reach of the Ryukyuan nobility, the sanshin (the ancestor of the Shamisen) gradually transformed itself until it was finally within reach of the common people around the 19th century. Usually in the films of Samurais one usually hears the melodies of the Shamisen. Formerly the Shamisen was used principally accompanying plays as the kabuki, bunraku, also could be considered that would replace replacing the biwa due to the interpretative advantages that the Shamisen offered. It can be seen accompanied by the flute shakuhachi and a koto (Japanese zither) this trio is called SanKyoku.

How it looks:

The Shamisen is a musical instrument of pulsed string of the type Laud, like the banjo or the ukuelele, to give a few examples; also it seems a guitar in its form as in the technique used to play. Both Sanxian and Sanshin and Shamisen have very similar characteristics, the Shamisen as a lute that is, has a peg, a body or a box and a particularly thin neck or neck because it has only three strings.


Its predecessor the sanxián like the sanshin of Ryukyu was a construction with leather of snake of India, later for the Shamisen other types of leathers were used like the skin of cat or dog and at the moment one uses goat leather or some synthetic material, we have built it with goat leather and we fit a microphone inside. The strings are suspended in the said leather cap through a small wooden bridge.

The three nylon strings, cedar or tetron supported from the base of the instrument box with a typical knot and typical Jampones knot. Having the same length from the base to the peg and having each string it’s tuning; Their diameters are different, the most serious rope at the top and the finest and sharpest rope at the bottom

Another characteristic of the Shamisen is that it does not have frets so it is an uncured instrument. The coarse string gives the tonic of the instrument; the second string is tuned to a 4th or 5th of the tonic and the sharpest string in the 7th minor or octave of the tonic. So we can find different tunings like for example (from severe to acute) A, D, A the other variant is A, E, A, another possibility A, D, G. For other Shamisen it can be C, G, C or also C, F, C and C, G, Bb.

How to play:

To play it is used a plectrum or pick, concretely it is called “Bachi” and it looks like the handle of a spatula. This technique is one of the main differences between the Shamisen and the Sanxian, since this one was touched with a species of stick, whereas the Shamisen inherited the technique used in the Biwa, Japanese instrument also of pulsed but older rope. The strumming technique has variants, if you hit with the bachi down you will also hit the body, however strumming upwards is a softer sound.

Ocarina Musical Instrument

Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, Western art, or ecclesiastical and concert music, in the period from the 9th century to the 21st century.

Classic music is still played by many of today’s musicians. The instruments used in classical music were mostly invented before the middle of the 19th century. Some of them had been designed even earlier, and codified in the 18th and 19th centuries

It does not matter if you’re musical or not, but surely you are must aware of most classical instruments, including classical musical instruments are  guitars, harps, trumpets, violins and the like. However, have you stumbled upon the ocarina before?

Origin of Ocarina:

The first known musical instrument ocarina appears about 1200 years ago. The ocarina’s origins can be traced back to many different cultures. In South and Central America, the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas all developed and performed on clay ocarinas which were often shaped like birds or animals.

How it looks:

Ocarinas are a family of vessel flutes, featuring a closed chamber riddled with finger holes. Interestingly, it is able to play a lot more notes than it has holes and can have any shape a craftsman wants. Shape and the hole locations make almost no difference. This fact enables an ocarina to come in a lot of forms and be kind of a piece of art in itself. The pinnacle of this is probably the dragon tooth ocarina.


An ocarina can made out of virtually all materials clay, ceramic, plastic, metal, stone and so forth. Because of this artistic freedom, I sometimes describe it as the “paradise bird” among flutes. The ocarina comes in all imaginable forms, sizing and colorations, whereas other wind instruments such as recorders need a particular material and a certain form to function.

Brief History Of Ocarina:

I find this fact remarkable! The oldest musical instrument ocarina and its older brothers have been with mankind over all of its history. They were altered in shape and cultural use, but their sound remained the same. Any standard classical musical instrument is an infant when put next to vessel flutes.

Basically, different peoples have invented stone or clay instruments independently from one another. For instance, the Chinese have the xun. It is over seven thousand years of age and is still popular today. Then there’s the medieval German gemshorn. It was made out of the horn of a goat. Lastly, don’t forget the Aztecs, who used these flutes in their traditional music and rituals. After the Aztecs had been conquered, their clay flutes found their way to the European continent and eventually Italy, where Giuseppe Donati changed them into what we know as the ocarina.


The United States got the classical musical instrument ocarina early in the 20th century, and Ocarina was very popular among American soldiers. Many carried ocarinas with them during World War 1 and played them to boost their morale. In WW2, the US military actually issued these instruments to soldiers all over Europe, which reflects how important the instrument was back then.

After the war, public awareness of the ocarina decreased. It never became a part in the western lifestyle. Nonetheless, it was used in a few well known songs, such as “Wild Thing”.

Throughout the East, the ocarina has always been much more common. Virtually every Asian knows the instrument the way you are aware of the piano. Because of this, it frequently finds a role in film, music or video games. And it is due to this that the ocarina is getting ever more fashionable in the west. Particularly through Japanese games, the classical musical instrument ocarina has found a way right into popular culture and into the minds and hearts of young and old.

How to play ocarina:

To play the ocarina, start by putting the mouthpiece in your mouth so the holes on the instrument are facing up. Then, cover some of the holes with your fingers, and blow into the mouthpiece to play a note. You can play different notes by covering different holes with your fingers.

You have a 4-hole musical instrument Ocarina. Ocarina plays 11 notes by covering different combinations of holes. Make up your own tunes with ocarina by playing these five notes in whatever order you like.

But the musical instrument ocarina is much more than a simple clay flute or a toy made popular by a game. As a matter of fact, classical musical instrument Ocarina is a professional musical instrument that is designed for ensemble play. It has an ancient sound different from all other flutes, simply because it won’t make over-tones. That circumstance grants it a very mellow, gentle tone, clean and concentrated on that one note it creates each and every instant. This otherworldly feature of its music is just as unique as its shape and history.

Kathak ghungroo

Kathak ghungroo

India is a land of rich traditions and heritage. And what superior feature of the country could represent this than the Indian dance forms. The traditional dances of India have different styles. This is so because the dance forms belong to varied parts of the country – they originated there and then developed with all the cultural elements.

There are a great many folk dances that belong to separate regions of the country and are mainly performed by the local people of that particular region only. The Indian film dances also hold a significant spot in the culture of the country.

Kathak ghungroo in  to the popular dance of the country

Kathak  dance form belongs to North India, and the name ‘Kathak’ has been taken from the Sanskrit work ‘katha’ which means ‘story’. Hence, Kathak is ‘the one who tells the story’. It majorly consists of loving and childhood stories of Lord Krishna. Kathak has three different forms which belong to, and are also named after three North Indian cities – Lucknow, Banaras and Jaipur. Ghunghroo in kathak can be distinguished because in Kathak, ghunghroos that are strung together using ‘thick thread’ are worn.

 Ghungroo (small bells) is the main element and involves rhythmic body movements with facial expressions.ghungroo are many different names like ghunghroo or ghunghru or ghungur.Ghungroo  is little ringing bells strung together to form ghungroos, a musical anklet attached to the feet of classical Indian dancers. Ghunghroo is considered to be very blessed and is worshiped by the dancers. Very Special attention is paid to the way they are tied on the feet so that neither it is loose that it might fall, nor is tight that it might hurt. The loosening of ghunghroos while dancing is not considered to be good, rather is unacceptable, since it affects the performance and brings a bad impression to the audience. Ghunghroo adds on to the attractiveness and beauty of a dancer and helps in producing a sense of ‘taal’ (rhythm), making it clearer to reach the listeners. The viewers thus are able to follow the footsteps and understand the movement of a dancer. The size of ghunghroo plays an most important role in producing the accurate rhythmical drumming while showcasing ‘footwork’. Ghunghroo is worn by both male and female, in every traditional and classical dance.

A Kathak performance may include a dozen classical instruments depending more on the effect and depth required for a particular performanceThe most ordinary and common instruments that go with Kathak are tabla its mean a pair of hand drums that syncs with the dancer’s feet rhythms, Many other musical instruments like sarangi or harmonium with manjira that meters the cycle to add consequence,effect, depth and structure to the communicative stage of a Kathak performance.

Kathak dance has two main type 

1)   nritya (pure dance)

 2)  Abhinaya (expressions)


The first one is Nritya which has a structure of pure dance in which the performances moves from slow to a faster pace and then reaching a increase at the peak. It often has two kinds of compositions. The shorter ones are called tukra and the longer pieces are known as toda.


The second style is called Abhinaya which focuses on expressions as the main mode. This style uses pieces of expressions to convey a story. This performance style is also known Bhaav Bataanaa or Abhinaya.

 In short physical descprition of kathak ghungroo are Stylistically, the Kathak dance form emphasizes rhythmic foot actions  and movement, decorated with small bells its mean Ghungroo, and the movement in step to the music. With the eyebrows the performer or dancer gives different facial expressions.

Djembe Drum

It iѕ widely believed thаt thе Djembe (pronounced JEM – Beh) hаѕ itѕ origins with thе “numu”, a social class оf professional blacksmiths frоm thе Mandinka (Maninke) people оf western Africa in аrоund 1300 AD. It iѕ believed thаt thеу wеrе thе firѕt tо carve thiѕ wooden instrument.  It iѕ ѕаid thаt thе term “djembe” originates frоm thе Bambara saying “Anke djé, anke bé” whiсh translates tо “everyone gather tоgеthеr in peace”.

Fоr thе mоѕt part, African history isn’t written down, but iѕ passed dоwn thrоugh stories аnd traditions. Thе origin story оf thе djembe iѕ nо different, thеrе аrе multiple stories оf hоw thiѕ popular drum саmе tо be.

Thе mоѕt commonly told story iѕ thаt a village idiot’s wife wаѕ pounding grain in hеr mortar оnе dау whеn ѕhе pounded thrоugh thе bottom. Hеr husband happened tо bе in thе vicinity with a goat skin, whiсh thеу stretched оvеr thе hоlе in thе mortar tо mаkе thе vеrу firѕt djembe.

According tо Madinka legend, thе djembe iѕ ѕаid tо hаvе соmе аbоut thrоugh a genie (known аѕ a djinn) whо gifted thе tree tо a Madinka blacksmith аnd taught him hоw tо carve it intо a djembe.

Djembe drums mау date bасk оvеr 800 years, but thеу аrе ѕtill аmоng thе mоѕt imроrtаnt instruments in Africa. Althоugh mоѕt visitors encounter thеm аt markets оr in drumming circles, thеу ѕtill play a pivotal role in thе rhythm оf thе continent.

Itѕ Origins

Thе djembe drum iѕ ѕаid tо hаvе bееn invented in thе 12th Century bу thе Mandinke tribe in whаt iѕ nоw Mali, in Wеѕt Africa. It hаѕ bееn played bу Wеѕt Africans fоr generations forming аn integral раrt оf ritualistic life in Mali, Guinea, Senegal аnd оthеr neighbouring Wеѕt African countries.

Fасt  Djembe Drum

Thе drum hаѕ hаd mаnу uѕеѕ оvеr thе decades, аnd it plays аn imроrtаnt раrt in mаnу spiritual аnd ritual traditions throughout thе continent.

Traditionally, drums wеrе uѕеd аѕ a form оf long-distance communication bеtwееn tribes based fаr apart, аnd fоr storytelling аnd entertainment. Thе djembe’s primary purpose wаѕ fоr storytelling musicians tо pass оn imроrtаnt religious, historical аnd cultural messages, оftеn асrоѕѕ multiple generations. Musicians аlѕо play specific songs depending оn thе occasion – ѕоmе аrе kept specifically fоr weddings, births аnd funerals, оr fоr calling fоr rain оr gооd harvests.

Thеir рlасе in popular culture

Thе djembe hаѕ аlѕо transcended traditional uѕеѕ аnd found itѕ wау intо popular culture. Sеvеrаl master-djembe players likе Mamady Keita, Adama Dramé аnd Soungalo Coulibaly аrе knоwn асrоѕѕ thе continent fоr thеir abilities, аnd thе instrument hаѕ аlѕо bееn integrated intо Western popular culture, appearing in ballets, films аnd recordings bу notable artists ѕuсh аѕ Paul Simon.

Althоugh it’s easy tо view thе djembe drum аѕ a vehicle fоr lighthearted entertainment, itѕ lоng history, build quality аnd deep cultural ties аrе ensuring itѕ longevity, аnd securing itѕ role аѕ оnе оf thе continent’s mоѕt imроrtаnt instruments.

– Thе term “djembe” originates frоm thе Bambara saying “Anke djé, anke bé” whiсh translates tо “everyone gather tоgеthеr in peace.”

– Thе djembe iѕ ѕаid tо consist оf thrее spirits: thе spirit оf thе tree frоm whiсh it wаѕ made, thе spirit оf thе animal whоѕе ѕkin covers thе head, аnd thе spirit оf thе drum maker.

–  Thе djembe drum iѕ mоѕt commonly associated with thе Madinka people оf Wеѕt Africa. Thе djembe specifically originates оut оf Mali аѕ fаr bасk аѕ thе 12th century.

– 4. Thе djembe drum iѕ аlѕо knоwn аѕ thе “Devil Drum” bесаuѕе it wаѕ traditionally mаdе frоm hollow-out trees called Dimba, аlѕо knоwn аѕ “Devil Wood.”

– Thе thrее basic sounds thаt саn bе produced with a djembe аrе bass, tone, аnd slap. Othеr tones саn bе produced using a combination оf these, but thеѕе аrе thе thrее building blocks. Bass iѕ thе lowest оf thе thrее notes аnd iѕ produced bу hitting thе center оf thе drum. Tone hаѕ a soft, уеt full sound аnd саn bе produced bу playing thе ѕidе оf thе drum with fingers thаt аrе relaxed, уеt held together. Slap iѕ thе loudest аnd sharpest note аnd саn bе played bу hitting thе edge оf thе drum head with thе center оf уоur hand аnd thеn quickly pulling it away. Thе slap iѕ gеnеrаllу considered tо bе thе mоѕt difficult tone tо perform.

– Based оn Madinka legend, thе djembe iѕ ѕаid tо hаvе соmе аbоut thrоugh a genie (known аѕ a djinn) whо gifted thе tree tо a Madinka blacksmith аnd taught him hоw tо carve it intо a djembe. According tо legend, djinns wеrе normally considered tо bе impish аnd mischievous beings, hоwеvеr it’s intеrеѕting tо note that, in thiѕ case, thе djinn wаѕ actually helpful!


Social & Cultural Context

In Wеѕt African society, сеrtаin instruments ѕuсh аѕ thе balafon, thе kora аnd thе ngoni аrе subject tо hereditary restrictions, meaning thаt thеу mау оnlу bе played bу mеmbеrѕ оf thе griot caste. Thе djembe iѕ nоt a griot instrument аnd thеrе аrе nо restrictions оn whо mау bесоmе a djembefola (djembe player).

In daily life, various events аrе accompanied bу unique songs аnd dances, usually sung bу thе griot, accompanied bу drummers, singers аnd dancers. Songs tell оf grеаt leaders, likе King Sundiata, оr praise сеrtаin professions, likе thе cobblers оr hunters.

Thе djembe iѕ primarily thе instrument оf dance uѕеd аt marriages, baptisms, funerals, circumcisions аnd excisions. Songs аrе аlѕо played during thе ploughing, sowing аnd thе harvest, uѕеd fоr courtship rituals аnd еvеn tо settle disputes аmоng thе mеn оf thе village.

In a typical ensemble, twо djembes аnd a dundun player accompany thе griot. Women sing аnd clap hands, whilе moving in аnd оut оf thе circle, ѕhоwing оff thеir skill аѕ dancers. Thе djembe master оr soloist leads thе pace оf thе dance, increasing thе tempo whеn gооd dancers enter thе circle. A single song iѕ played fоr mоѕt occasions, usually lasting a fеw hours.

Hоw tо Play thе Djembe: Learn thе Basics

Thе Wеѕt African Djembe hаѕ thrее basic sounds. In thiѕ lesson Aldo Mazza, founder аnd educator with KoSa Music  аnd mеmbеr оf thе percussion ensemble Repercussion explains thе techniques nесеѕѕаrу tо play thiѕ amazing hand drum. He’ll аlѕо ѕhоw uѕ hоw tо play a simple Casa Rhythm оn thе Djembe.

In thiѕ video, Aldo Mazza will walk uѕ thrоugh thе thrее basic djembe hand drumming techniques.

Basic Djembe Playing Position

In оrdеr tо play thе djembe уоu hаvе tо appreciate thаt thе drum’s sound соmеѕ frоm thе bottom аnd nоt thе top. So, it iѕ imроrtаnt thаt thе drum iѕ tilted оn itѕ edge whеn уоu аrе playing in a seated position ѕо thаt thеrе iѕ аn ореning аt thе bottom. Tilt thе drum аwау frоm уоu ѕо thаt уоur hands аrе in аn ergonomic “V” position fоr playing comfortably.

Thе djembe саn аlѕо rеѕt оn a stand whiсh саn bе adjusted fоr еithеr a seated оr standing position. Yоu саn аlѕо wear thе drum оn a harness аnd move around, аnd with thе drum suspended in thiѕ manner оr оn a stand thе bottom iѕ аlwауѕ ореn tо allow thе sound tо emanate frоm thе drum. Hеrе аrе ѕоmе stands tо consider аnd based uроn уоur nееdѕ аnd budget thеѕе stands аrе аll pretty good.

What’s thе Bеѕt Hand Position fоr Playing thе Djembe?

With уоur drum tilted ѕо thаt thе head iѕ slanted аwау frоm уоu рlасе уоur hands оn thе drum ѕо thаt уоur fingers аrе аlmоѕt touching ѕо thаt уоur hands form a “V” shape. In оthеr words уоu don’t wаnt уоur hands in a parallel position.

Yоur shoulders ѕhоuld bе dоwn аnd relaxed. Remember this: Nо tension required tо play thе Djembe!


In оrdеr tо mаkе a djembe sound good, thе tuning оf thе ѕkin nееdѕ tо bе fairly tight and, mоrе importantly, еvеn оn аll ѕidеѕ оf thе drum. If оnе ѕidе оf thе ѕkin iѕ significantly tighter thаn аnоthеr thеn unwanted overtones will impair thе crispness оf thе sound.

Tuning – rope iѕ horizontally interwoven bеtwееn thе vertical ropes tо increase tension in thе head

Thе tuning оf thе drum iѕ achieved bу using a double-hoop system in whiсh a lower hoop, lapped with thе goat ѕkin head, iѕ pulled dоwn оvеr thе rim оf thе drum bу аn upper hoop, whiсh iѕ interlocked via a lоng vertically-winding rope with a ѕmаllеr hoop juѕt below thе bowl оf thе drum.

Onсе thе vertical rope hаѕ bееn pulled tight аll thе wау аrоund thе drum it iѕ tied off, аnd саn bе continued tо bе uѕеd bу weaving horizontally bеtwееn thе ropes tо increase thе tension further. Thе horizontal rope iѕ weaved bеhind аnd in front оf thе vertical ropes (various methods саn bе employed) ѕо аѕ tо twist thеm intо аn “S” shape аnd increase thе tension оf thе ѕkin until thе desired pitch iѕ reached. Thе ѕkin will naturally descend in pitch оvеr time, ѕо drummers regularly increase thе tension оn thе ѕkin bу continuing tо weave thе horizontal rope аll thе wау аrоund thе bowl оf thе drum until еithеr thе ѕkin iѕ ѕо stretched thаt it iѕ nо lоngеr usable, оr thе ѕkin rips.

Sounds оf thе djembe

Thеrе аrе thrее main sounds thаt саn bе played оn a djembe: bass, tone аnd slap.

Thе bass sound (low-pitched) iѕ achieved bу striking thе drum in thе middle оf thе ѕkin with a heavy hand.

Thе tone (medium-pitched) iѕ played with thе hand оn thе edge оf thе skin, using thе wrist аѕ wеll аѕ thе arm tо propel thе hand towards thе drum

Thе slap (high-pitched) iѕ technically thе hardest stroke tо achieve. Thеrе аrе mаnу types оf slap, аll оf whiсh аrе played near thе edge. Ghanaians play thеir slap slightly furthеr in thаn thе tone аѕ shown below.

Djembe drummers frоm Guinea, Mali аnd оthеr countries whеrе thе djembe iѕ indigenous, slap slightly furthеr out, with thе fingers роinting аѕ shown below.

In bоth саѕеѕ thе fingers ѕhоuld bе completely relaxed аnd thrown towards thе head оf thе drum bу thе arm аnd wrist. Thе bеѕt wау tо achieve thе slap iѕ thrоugh trial аnd error, аnd аѕ еvеrу person’s hands аrе diffеrеnt ѕо еvеrу person will hаvе a unique sound оn thе drum.


The quena is the customary flute of the Andes. It has different terms used to specify it including hispanicized spelling of Quechua qina, also written kena in English language.

It has 6 finger holes and is traditionally made of wood or cane. It consists of one thumb hole, and is usually open at both ends or the bottom is choked. The player closes the top end of the pipe in order to produce sound with the flesh between the chin and lower lip, and a stream of air is blown downward, along the alliance with the pipe, over an oval notch cut into the end. It is typically in the key of G, with G4 being the rock bottom note with all holes covered.

The size and shape of the blow-hole of the kena is of prime importance and significant regarding the prospective volume, tone and the precision of the octave. Its notch is designed differently in several regions, and changes even conferring to shape it may be U or V shaped, angular, presenting various proportions and fleeting forms that even blend with each other. The angular air notch is indistinguishable from that of flutes. The most significant difference between the common flute and the quena is presented by the closed upper end of the flute by a stopper, and a thin stream of air channels which blow air to the air notch; in the result, the shape and size of the air column does not change.

 The totally open upper end of the quena is covered by the player and he plays flute whilst supporting it with the lower lip and chin. The breadth of the air column, its shape and direction are synchronized by the lips in fact, it is necessary to learn how to sound the instrument for players much in the same way as the traverse flute. The quena flute produces highest and the deepest flute sounds.

Traditionally Quena is frequently used in Andean music. Quena was used in 1960s and 1970s by several nueva canción music experts. This use was credited to particular cases of songs. It was not used as a standard instrument, but some groups of musicians such as virtuoso player Facio Santillan have used Quena regularly. It was also incorporated in some of the songs by some post-nueva rock groups; Remarkably Soda Stereo  and Los Enanitos Verdes in Lamento Boliviano. The quena is also pretty much common in world music. Quenas are generally played in pairs and in harmony. In Peru, white quenas can be seen made from the leg-bone of the condor.

According to popular beliefs the instrument quena was also used to whip due to which it was used as threat for children. “vamos a ir a la quena” was the sentence told to children to scare them in the region of Andes.

Zampona Music Instrument

This wind instrument is from the family of pan-pipe,  and is made using varying sizes of a series of cane tubes bound together, which form one or two rows the musical note is dependent upon the size of tubes. It is available in the variety of length depending upon the region it is manufactured in because the quantity and length of tubes vary from region to region. It is very popular in the region of southern Peru, and played in all the festivities particularly in department of Puno.

Origin of Zampona is in the Tiahuanaco culture, which was flourished near the border of Bolivia and Peru around 700AD.  It was called Siku since its origin and players were called Sikuris. The inspiration behind the notes of this instrument was Andean peaks and players composed music particularly to honor their deities including condor, land, sky and moon. It was performed in the ceremonies as well.

In order to play a scale completely, one out of two split rows of Siku must alternate with every note. Two musicians were required traditionally, to play the siku, each one had to take one row of the instrument. Ira and arka were two parts of the has spiritual significance according to which Ira is male principle and Arka in female principle. When it is played by chorus of musician, which is usually divided into two parts, one play ira and other play arka, gives the stereophonic sound to Andean music.

There are varieties of siku having 3 rows with chromatic scale, with pitch distribution like that of chromatic button accordion. The pipes are braced with the right hand and held in the left hand to play Siku correctly. and braced with the right. Wind is forced right to the bottom while playing Siku. As with most wind instruments the player blows downward and breathes from the diaphragm. Although it is difficult for beginners as they learn to avoid breathing through the pipe. They have to learn breathing techniques in order to avoid dizziness. The experts know how to produce two melodies at once. The sound is between a European flute and a modest tin whistle.  It has a breath-like eminence that evokes the wind of the elevated peaks.

diatonic scale is used in Siku. Siku ch’alla is modified in E minor / G major, arca: D-F#-A-C-E-G-B and ira:E-G-B-D-F#-A. The individual pipes resemble to the standard notes of the scale: Si, Sol, Mi, Do, La, Fa, Re; and La, Fa, Re, Si, Sol, Mi.  The Inca tonal scale consists of five notes.

There are many different sizes of siku, typically tuned is an octave apart. The smallest of the family is called ika or chulli (Quechuach’ulli). The next greater size, the most common, is called malta (Quechuamalta). An octave minor than the malta is the sanka or zanka (Quechuasanka). The prime of the family is the toyo (Quechuat’uyu) or jach’a (Aymarajach’a). The longest pipe length of the toyo is usually around 4 feet (120 centimeters).

Didgeridoo for health

As history would have it, the didgeridoo is perceived as the world’s oldest wind instrument. It is estimated to date back thousands of years ago, as it originated as a musical instrument from the North Australian Aborigine.

This wind instrument is played traditionally together with clap sticks or clapping two boomerangs together in various ceremonial dances. People who play the didgeridoo can tap out the rhythms on the side of it with the aid of their sticks or fingers.

Playing instruments can be entertaining. In addition, playing instruments can also help them spend quality time with friends and relatives. But, there are some instruments that can provide you with more benefits like didgeridoo. Didgeridoo is an instrument is an aboriginal wind instrument in the Land Down Under.

How The Didgeridoo Is Made

Traditionally, a didgeridoo is made from Eucalyptus saplings or branches. Although eucalyptus has hundreds of species, only about a dozen can be used to make didgeridoo. It entails perfect timing to make the perfect didgeridoo instrument. The perfect wall thickness of the wind instrument is based on the hollowed eucalyptus tree and the one making the instrument has to make sure that the instrument is not too thin nor too thick. Termites naturally hollow out the eucalyptus tree. It takes them more or less one year to hollow a eucalyptus tree out – so the people making the didgeridoo has to be patient enough to wait for the right time that it can already be harvested.


With the use of this instrument, individuals can obtain numerous benefits. Below are some of the following.

Improve flow and balance of oxygen

One of the main benefits when you learn to play didgeridoo is you can improve flow and balance of oxygen in your body. Oxygen plays a huge role in the body. For one, oxygen is used to oxidize our food. During the process of cellular respiration, it releases energy, which is eventually stored in ATP in the electron transport chain in mitochondria and in glycolysis in the cytoplasm.

Good stationary workout

The next benefit of playing didgeridoo is it is a good stationary workout. There are cases when working out is quite impossible due to lack of space. And, the best option is to look for stationary workouts. For instance, when playing didgeridoo at 120 breaths a minute, sweating can be experienced.

Relaxes internal organs

Another benefit of playing didgeridoo is individuals can relax their internal organs. This is possible since the up and down diaphragm movement involved in circular breathing supports the quick intake or quick or pressurized dispelling of air. These deep and or fast movements of air feel like a sort of massage for the internal organ.

Soothing the nervous system

Playing didgeridoo can also sooth the nervous system. This can be achieved since didgeridoo sound is commonly found to be soothing to the Nervous System. Apart from the sound, some experts also claim the vibration of the didgeridoo can also help soothe the nervous system.

Get rid mental and emotional stress

Playing didgeridoo is often found to offer more subtle mental and emotional relief from worries or issues unresolved since feelings can be expressed in a vocal way and yet be music to the ear.

Reduce sleeping disorders

Finally, when you learn to play such wind instrument, you can also reduce sleeping disorders. Health experts claim circular breathing used in playing didgeridoo strengthen the larynx and the muscles supporting breathing. Not to mention, it also supports the reduction or cessation of snoring.

Kalimba For Health

An African instrument, the Thumb Piano is also called  Kalimba. Two more terms are the Mbria or Likembe. They all look a little bit similar to one another but quite naturally they have a variance in the sounds each instrument makes. These instruments have been around for thousands of years. Originally the keys were made of bamboo and over time the keys were replaced with metal keys. In the early 1900s, the thumb piano gave the name Kalimba.

Ancient African instruments are called lamellaphones and The Kalimba, or African thumb piano, is an also modern member of that family. All over the world, each cultural group has its own unique type of kalimba and its own name.

Sound of Kalimba:

It was thought in ancient times the Kalimba was to project its sound into heaven and was even considered to draw down spirits to the earth. Some of them were violent spirits in which the music would stop until the spirits had departed from the area. Now let’s look at the craftsmanship of the piano. The piano is made of rosewood and the soundboard is made of spruce and comes in different tunings. On the back of the instrument is has two vibrato holes and the fingers alter the sound by moving them over the holes and away from the holes.

The tone of kalmia is basically adjusted tines so they have the exact sound they are supposed to, according to which note a tine is designated to play.

Physical description of Kalimba:

Physical description of Kalimba is that the basic Kalimba have a soundbox with metal keys or tongues (called lamellas)  these are attached on the top of the kalimba. The keys or tongues are usually made from cane. The soundbox is made with an African hardwood and the keys or tongues of kalimba are made out of European spring steel.


For Musicians:

Most of the time the Kalimba is played by a solo musician and the tuning is not critical as playing with another musician. If playing with another musician then you may want to take note of the tunings. The lower keys have a low pitch while the shorter keys have a high pitch. All of the keys on the Kalimba can be tuned by adjusting the pieces of metal inward or outward. The low keys are located in the center of the wooden box and the high keys are located on the outside of the box. This Dobani brand instrument has a very incredible sound. This particular  Kalimba or finger piano as it is sometimes called is a well-made product. The Kalimba is part of the bar percussion family.

Kalimbas have 17 keys for the professional musician who has a lot of skills. With these keys, you will teach yourself many great songs. More so, with these 17 keys Kalimba, you can compose outstanding and heart touching your own songs. Instrumentalist is eager to know or learn something and would love to try out a Kalimba. The name kalimba derives from Bantu word which means “little music”, and is similar to the word karimba, a type of mbira.


Kalimba Musical Therapy:

Kalimba music therapy is to relieve stress or ease depression in that case the act of creating music can be an important therapeutic tool. Kalimba enable positive change through the sound created it is light and whimsical. it is the best way to release tension, depression and stress.

Gongs For Sound Healing

Masters such as Don Contreaux point out that this ancient instrument helps to remove anger and negative feelings by cultivating the feeling of compassion, especially towards you. The tension created in the body by anger is released and as you know, the result is better health.

There are plenty of instruments for sound therapy but one of the best and often overlooked instruments is the gong. Steeped in history, the gong is used for ceremonies, initiations, celebrations and for healing.

There is no wrong way to play a gong and its nature allows you to play it as many different instruments. Playing on the edge of the gong will create a different sound than playing in the middle. You can also create unique effects by using different types of mallets.

Different Types Of Gongs:

Gongs come in many different sizes. The larger ones have a deeper or lower the tone. Paiste makes several different types of gongs, the most popular being the Symphonic and the Planet. The main difference is that Planet Gong is more precisely tuned (to the planets) whereas the Symphonic Gong has stronger overtones.

How It Gong Looks Like:

Let’s first look at the gong itself. Typically, a gong is looking like a hammered round metal disk. It’s surface is usually flat and slightly rounded at the edge of gong. The surface of the gong has 3 areas and each area produces a different sound when played. The gong is played with a mallet and struck at various percussion points with a variety of rhythms to create specific effects.


Sound of The Gong:

One of the most imortant features of the gong is the sound it produces. Playing the gong is an art because the gong is not like playing a drum or any other musical instrument. The gong is a vibration. It is like playing hundreds of notes at the same time. As the gong is played it produces a note against a background of other notes. Each noteof the gong interacts with the next note and  then they change each other. When you listen to the gong you feel this creates a complex pattern of sounds.

Gong Yoga

“The gong is a sacred threshold. It is the portal where that links of the gong are finite and the infinite experience of the Self. Now days the gong is the most sublime instrument of the yogi.”

Many yoga instructors will use the gong with the yogic practices of asana, pranayama, mantras and meditation to work with kundalini energy. A few years ago Mehtab Benton published his book, Gong Yoga: Healing and Enlightenment through Sound where he tells how the gong is used effectively in Kundalini Yoga and Nada Yoga.

The gong is a terrific instrument for sound healing. Contrary to what some believe, it does not take a lot of room. Small footprint floor stands are available as are gong stands which hold 2 gongs, one above the other.

Bamboo Flute For Healing

The bamboo flute is musical instrument it is one of the oldest and simplest musical instruments in all over the world.  Bamboo flutes are made with care and quality to fit every musical need. Bamboo flutes were man’s first invented wind as a instrument.

How it looks:

A bamboo flute is conventionally made from a single hollow shank with six or seven finger holes. Some modern designs come in tusk, fiberglass and various metals. The six hole instrument covers two and a half religious festival of music. It is typically between 30 centimeters (12 in) and 75 centimeters (30 in) in length, and the thickness of a human thumb. One end is closed, and it is few centimeters from the closed end is bamboo blow hole. Bamboo blow feature is deeper tones and its lower pitches. The musician creates the notes he wants by tapping the various finger holes it has the traditional design features and no mechanical keys.



Playing side blown bamboo flute is basically the same technique used in sounding a tone on the end of a glass soda bottle.  The stream of air entering the mouth then the hole vibrates within the bamboo flute producing a tone of music.

The Sound on a bamboo flute instrument comes from a vibrating column of air inside the instrument. In a three ways as air is blown across the top of an instrument and the player makes this column of air vibrate.


BAMBOO FLUTES Cultural events:

Most cultures of the world have some type of bamboo flute (which simply means a flute blown across, a side-blown flute.).Many cultures use bamboo flutes as their primary wind instrument because bamboo flute grows in most tropical and temperate climates of all over the world.  Their ease of use and playability make them a natural choice for everyone to enter the musical arena. While the richness of tone and great flexibility of bamboo flute make them an excellent selection for the experienced musician as well (see professional quality flutes below.)  The tone pitch of these musical instruments are A440 these instruments are well-tuned to major keys .They are fully chromatic (play all sharps and flats), with a minimum 1-2 octave range. They have an individually colored burnt-tone, and also come with warranty, instructions about usage, and songbook. Flute bags are provided for the best care and preservation of your instruments from damage.

There are several types of bamboo flutes made all over the world, such as the dizi, xiao, shakuhachi, palendag and jinghu. Bamboo flute is a very popular and highly respected musical instrument, available even to the poorest and the choice of many highly venerated maestros of classical music. It is known and revered above all as the divine but flute forever associated with Lord Krishna, who is always draw holding a bansuri in by carving stone or wood or by casting metal or plaster and paintings. Bamboo is also used   in Polynesia for traditional hula as a musical instrument. Four of the instruments are Nose flute, rattle, stamping pipes and the jaw harp. Bamboo used instead of the more traditional eucalyptus wood in the construction of the Australian didgeridoo.

bamboo has been used for making various kinds of musical instruments In Indonesia and the Philippines, instruments including the kolintang, angklung and bumbong.

Bamboo is also used to make slit drums. Bamboo musical instruments are used in traditional Philippine banda kawayan and, as well as bamboo versions of western instruments, these are musical instruments are clarinets, saxophones, and tubas. The modern amplified string instrument, are also constructed using bamboo like Chapman stick.   Bamboo, are connected with a small, hollowed-out hardwood reservoir into which air is blown, in a return creating a sound similar to that of the violin.

Bamboo has also recently been used for the manufacture of  musical instruments like guitars and ukuleles.

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